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The term hypokinetic describes many of the diseases and conditions associated with inactivity and poor fitness and first originated in the book Hypokinetic Disease ( Kraus & Raab, 1961).


Hypo - lack of Kinetic - Movement

Hypokinetic diseases are conditions related to inactivity or low levels of movement.

Hypokinetic Diseases include:



High blood pressure

High cholesterol



Lower back pain

Type 2 diabetes mellitus



1. Physical active people have a 33-50% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with inactive people. The preventative effect is particularly strong for those at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, as it can reduce their risk of developing the disease by up to 64%.


2. Physical activity programmes can help reduce the risk of falling, and therefore fractures, among older people.


3. Physical activity is effective in the treatment of clinical depression and can be as successful as psychotherapy or medication, particularly in the longer term.


4. Physical activity is associated with a reduction in overall risk of cancer. In colon cancer the most active individuals have, on average, a 40-50% lower risk than the least active. Women with higher levels of Physical activity have about a 30% lower risk of breast cancer than the least active.


5. Physical activity is a major independent protective factor against coronary heart disease in men and women. Inactive and unfit people have almost double the risk of dying from coronary heart disease compared with more active and fit people. people at high risk of coronary heart disease may benefit even more from physical activity compared with people at lower risk. Physical activity also significantly reduces the risk of a stroke and provides effective treatment of peripheral vascular disease .


Exercises can be categorised into 2 areas:


1. Aerobic/Cardiovascular

2. Anaerobic



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